Missional Church Planting and Congregational Transformation:
A Missional Youth Ministry Model
American Baptist Seminary of the West
Doctor of Ministry Program
Professor: Rev. Portia Wills Lee MDiv
January 18-22, 2010
By: Richard Moore
Missional Model For Youth Ministry
Section 1: Spiritual Gifting Modality
In the search to understand God’s desire for ministry and to seek His methods for reaching many more hearts with His good news, this paper will attempt to delineate clearly a re-visioned model of ministry. With the Great Commission at the center, I will seek to keep my own spiritual gifts and my personal cultural context in mind. Above all I will seek to stay true to a scripturally authentic theology. My goals will be to lay out a relevant model that incorporates many different current models that I believe are scripturally authentic while seeking to stay relevant to the present youth culture.
First of all, I need to deal with my own spiritual gifts. I believe that my spiritual gift is that of prophecy. With that spiritual gift I am not able to tell the future, but rather to proclaim truth in a bold and courageous way. I also believe that God has gifted me in the area of preaching and teaching. I preached for the first time at my home church when I was seventeen. I caught the fire and realized my spiritual gift that God had given me many years ago when I accepted Him into my life, but was just now starting to practice. I also believe that God has given me that ability to connect deeply with people from the pulpit or in whatever context I happen to be speaking. I have also managed to use that gift to be quite relevant in its delivery for the lost person to easily understand. Another spiritual gift that God has graciously given is that of a giving heart. I am most thankful for this gift because on many different occasions I have been able to give what I have to help people that are in need within the Church and also those who are apart from Christ. I am not wealthy by any stretch, but I am open to use the resources that I do have to bless those that could use anything to further missions and ministry. A re-visioned model would incorporate these spiritual gifts into a missional approach to ministry.
Spiritual gifts will be the basis for doing ministry in this personal model. My emphasis on prophecy enables me to see the model including many justice issues. In class we discussed many justice issues, several of which I would include in a missional model. I would love to see God use me in my ministry context for three groups of people. The first group of people that I want to care for is those that are unborn. I would love to train young people to understand and to care deeply and passionately about the unborn. I would love to flesh this out more and more in my present ministry context. With that I have partnered with www.abort73.com to encourage our students in God’s work of protecting the most defenseless of our society. I brought this up as a justice issue in class because there is not another group of people in this world that are more defenseless. It is a pretty unsafe place to be a person in our world of abortion on demand. Considering the injustice the ethnic communities already suffer, the addition of this supreme injustice of denying life to the living is yet another injustice to the unborn ethnic child. This should not be, and I believe that God will bring the Church to account on how we loved and cared for the mother and her unborn baby so as to be Christ’s hands and feet to those in crisis.
Another justice issue that I would love to address in my missional model is that of modern day slavery. San Francisco and Oakland are among the worst cities in the country for sex slavery and human trafficking. These among other slavery issues are ones that I believe that my prophetic voice can and should open up students to connecting with ministries that aid, free, and assist women, and any people who have been caught and stolen into slavery. I have and will continue to talk about these modern day justice issues trying to give students practical ways to get involved and make a difference in the world with their gifts.
This gift of prophecy can be a great benefit and also a great hindrance when not used properly and not in love. Two other justice issues strike me as I think about revising a model of ministry. For several years in youth ministry I have had students with disabilities. In every church, in every ministry, and in almost every working environment, I have been around students and older people with disabilities. I have made it a point to incorporate and make those with special needs safe and comfortable in my ministry contexts. This has been more of a blessing to my heart than I think I have been to those affected by disability. I want to seek justice for those students affected by disability and more than that to make these issues concerning disability prominent in ministry. I can see how God has been preparing me for this task. I would not have actually thought that God would be doing this in my midst for preparation, but when our daughter was born with a disability, He confirmed the justice and the kindness of this work toward those that need ministry as well. Just recently I have visited and studied a youth ministry model that reaches specifically those affected by disability. It is located in San Jose. It is a Young Life chapter called Capernaum. I had the blessing of visiting them during a club. I was so impressed it was truly awesome. They had 50 to 60 students in a club meeting on a Wednesday afternoon, all affected by disability in a different ways. They are truly evangelizing students with disability and showing the goodness of Jesus to those with disability. It was so exciting to see every student treated as a truly unique person whom God loves. I want to take these same principles and place them wholeheartedly into our ministry context. We will seek to make the message so simple and applicable that anyone can understand. The person with any kind of special need should also feel completely welcomed and loved. These principles of acceptance and acknowledgement by students will grow from me as a leader. I will seek to model an embrace of others who are not like me so it grows as a value in our youth ministry.
The final area I want to exhibit justice with my model of ministry is to the poor and disenfranchised. This should and hopefully will include many opportunities for our families to serve those who are needy to give them the tools to start to learn the skills to live life and to get back on their feet. I will do this by engaging the community-service organization within our Church to look constantly for new opportunities to serve the poor and needy. Our youth are right now partnering with a church in Oakland that serves food every week, and we serve them once a month and are seeking to serve their church in as many ways as we can. We will also work with our community service organization to seek to make partnerships with groups in the community. We don’t have to create service opportunities, but just partner with those that are already serving the needy (i.e. the Interfaith Homelessness Network, and The Urban Church).
Another spiritual gift that I have is that of preaching and teaching. I am more than blessed by God to have this spiritual gift. I am a specific type of communicator. I am a youth communicator. God has given me so much opportunity to preach and teach, and my model will include this aspect. I will seek to use this aspect of my ministry to draw those apart from Christ who are students. I believe this aspect is the one way that my gift can fulfill the Great Commission, “and teach these new disciples to obey everything that I have commanded you”, “Go into all the world and preach the Gospel to all creation.” I am not the lone soul-winner as a minister in the missional model. For this responsibility to be completely upon me, then the model will fail. In the missional model of youth ministry, the whole Church as adults and students together must take on the responsibility to evangelize and reach their friends to become a church that is not just friendly and warm on the surface, but that is relevant in every way to the life of a student. This means that the student involved in this ministry must also have the complete backing and support and work alongside the whole church. Students, if they have accepted Christ and are fully His, constitute the Church now, and we must treat them as such by giving them opportunities that adults also have in the Church body to serve. I am not saying that I would stop evangelizing through relevant preaching to students and personal evangelism to them, but I do maintain that students must now engage in the work alongside the rest of a congregation to make a missional model of ministry work effectively. We would also seek to entrust ministry of the Church as soon as possible to those youth that are maturing spiritually so that they could function as the Church now. According to Chap Clark, the editor of Youth Worker Journal and the director of the Youth-Ministry Department at Talbot Seminary, “the fact is that for large numbers of adolescents, youth ministries in churches represent a world that is foreign, irrelevant, and even occasionally offensive.” We will build service opportunities that allow adults and youth to serve alongside one another to become relevant again to the youth that we would serve. Principles that guide missions around the world by reaching a culture that is foreign to our own must be employed. We will immerse ourselves in the culture of students, which is foreign many times, and seek to meet them on their terms. Youth ministry that does not meet students where they are is not polite at best and offensive at worst. Clark goes on to describe in this new model should seek to train students also in evangelism because in the missional model the responsibility for student evangelism is shared between students and adults. Then the principles that guide cross-cultural missions can be adopted in cross-cultural student ministry. I will do my part to train and to evangelize students, asking also those saved students to obey the Great Commission in their obligation in sharing Christ, and share Him consistently with their friends.
The best way to accomplish this is to ask students to share in the calling of God to fulfill Jesus’ prayer in John 17, "They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. Sanctify them in the truth; Your word is truth. As You sent Me into the world, I also have sent them into the world. For their sakes I sanctify Myself, that they themselves also may be sanctified in truth.” I would then seek to use my teaching to train students to be focused on the Great Commission. As Jesus said, “Teach them to obey all that I have commanded you.” Jesus mandate is found in Mark 12:29-31 Jesus answered, "The foremost is, 'HEAR, O ISRAEL! THE LORD OUR GOD IS ONE LORD; AND YOU SHALL LOVE THE LORD YOUR GOD WITH ALL YOUR HEART, AND WITH ALL YOUR SOUL, AND WITH ALL YOUR MIND, AND WITH ALL YOUR STRENGTH.' "The second is this, 'YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF.' There is no other commandment greater than these." This is the start, and I will seek to teach this so that students can put it into action. I believe that God has gifted me to teach His Word and to preach it with authority, so in my teaching I will strive to draw the student that is not yet a Christian. I will also seek to empower purposeful and powerful Christians with spirit-filled and relevant teaching, the power of a holy life, and an emphasis on the victorious Christian life.
Section 2: Cultural Context Modality
Our cultural context here in the bay area of California is one of the most secular locales in America. Alameda County has fewer Christians per capita than any other county in California, and people are religious but not necessarily Christians. It is also one of the most hostile places in the U.S. to practice ones faith. Clear hostility intimidates those that would evangelize in the same way that it has been done (i.e. seeking converts as opposed to caring for souls). The evangelistic models in the past have been to share the gospel before caring for the needs of the people. In my particular context Christians have recognized this problem with evangelism, and unbelievers perceive that evangelical Christians don’t actually care for them as people; rather it seems to them that they just want to convert them. The Gospel should be presented with good works (service) in one hand and good words (Gospel message) in the other hand. This model of ministry will have to be offered with great courage and discipline as we train students to leave their comfort zone to serve because service is not easy. Then to go even further it will also be uncomfortable to share the gospel in this predominantly hostile and secular environment. Because of this cultural context, I will have to employ the great St. Francis of Assisi’s methodology, typically misquoted to say “If necessary use words.” He actually told the friars in Chapter XVII of his Rule of 1221, not to preach unless they had received the proper permission to do so. Then he added, “Let all the brothers, however, preach by their deeds.” This model will require a great deal of personal righteousness and sacrificial service before a word of Gospel message is spoken. We must earn the right to preach the Gospel, especially to those who have fled the influence of the Gospel and come to the San Francisco Bay Area.
Our cultural context is Bancroft Middle School and San Leandro High School, so my part in the missional youth-ministry model would be for me to promote campus ministry. Our ministry will seek to identify subcultures present on these campuses and identify their needs. For example, my background is the athletic subculture. I have been volunteering for several years in the after-school intramural program and the athletic teams. I want to implement a training program for students to see their particular area of interest or subculture on campus as their own personal mission field. This will not be accomplished without much effort and thought on the part of the students. They must consider their circle of influence as those to be served, loved, and influenced for the Gospel. This is the revision that needs to be implemented into our modality.
I would like to implement aspects of two different models of youth ministry that have been chronicled in a book called Four Views of Youth Ministry and the Church by Mark Senter. The first is called “Mission Now.” In this model students are viewed as the missionaries now to their specific contexts such as campus ministry and subculture within the larger youth culture being reached. In this model adults team up with students and empower them as missionary trainers to the student population. Missionaries on foreign mission fields use similar techniques. The second view is called “Mission Later.” The goal in this view is to see youth ministry as a means to an end. Churches would minister to youth with the understanding that a successful youth ministry would become a viable youth Church in the end. One of many urban examples is Crossover Church in Tampa, Florida. That youth ministry was so successful in hip-hop outreach that the youth ministry became the church plant, and they reshaped the church to be a hip-hop church to reach a completely disenfranchised subculture. Another example of this is the Skate Church of Portland, Oregon and West Seattle, just to name a few. These churches also grew from a youth-ministry model that was so successful in reaching the skate youth culture that they finally planted a church. There are also many other youth-ministry models that were very successful in reaching Generation X, postmodern, and most recently the millennial generation with services shaped just for them that these churches gave leadership and resources to plant the church for youth culture. I have a great vision to plant youth churches. It might not be here in the Bay Area, but I do believe that God is preparing me for the task of reaching youth and planting young churches that stay relevant in the face of an ever-changing culture.
Examples of these types of Generational Church planting movements are Mars Hill Church in Seattle, which spawned the Acts 29 church-planting movement in the reformed tradition with a very young and edgy approach. The coffee-house model is also very popular with the younger generation (Tommy’s Interactive in Columbia, South Carolina). It can take several forms and none of these may look like another because of context. A weekly magazine in the Columbia area has even seen the shift and applauds the efforts of the nontraditional church.
The Underground and other nontraditional local churches — Tommy’s Interactive and The Shack, among others — consciously appeal to those who have felt left out of traditional Christian congregations. Whether you’re gay, tattooed, dreadlocked or just unkempt, these churches aren’t going to turn you away. This open-minded approach to gaining adherents is one the church desperately needs. Despite the much-touted influence of evangelicals in electing President Bush, the proportion of the U.S. population calling itself “Christian” is actually declining — from 86.2 percent in 1990 to 76.5 percent in 2001, according to the American Religious Identity Study (conducted by The Graduate Center of the City University of New York). Fully 14 percent of the population practices no religion at all — more than the number of Episcopalians, Lutherans and Methodists combined, according to the study. It’s not unusual, of course, for 20-somethings to leave the church and return later. But there’s a greater sense of urgency today among mainline denominations — a feeling that things are different now, that changes in the way people are thinking about spirituality require new approaches to how churches conduct themselves.
This same sense of urgency needs to transform our modality if we happen to be dealing with the youth culture and seeking to become younger and younger as a church. If it does not, the church is one generation away from dying. My eschatology will not allow me to believe that Jesus will abandon His Church until He returns; however, that does not give us liberty to have weak modality and methodology. Nothing is unbiblical about changing modes while keeping a biblically rigorous orthodoxy.
Life Transformation Groups are promoted by Neil Cole in his book The Organic Church, which is Church on the small level as the Scripture says, “where two or three are gathered in my name, I am there in their midst.” This movement is a movement of small groups that meet for prayer, accountability, and mutual growth into the image of Christ. It is taking hold in many pockets of the Church today. There are a growing number of Youth Church movements in Europe. One is ‘Jesus Freaks’ which just recently published the Volxbibel, a full translation of the entire Bible in understandable and modern German by Martin Dryer. Dawn Ministries in Europe has also pushed other countries to join the movement of planting similar youth churches like Kraftwerk in Dresden, Germany. Hillsong United in Australia also has now planted many places in Europe and England. I would like to incorporate aspects of these church-planting movements into a model of youth ministry for the present and for future work in Germany and Europe. God has called us to be relevant, serving, incarnational, and gospel focused. These characteristics will become the core values of our model. The models of such churches have also tapped into the creativity of the youth culture by utilizing the art forms of each particular culture. Youth minister when they are allowed to lead using their art forms (i.e. skating, break dancing, hip-hop, musical forms, drama, etc). This will be a core value of the modality that I employ now and in the future. I will seek to never squash a valid cultural art form (unless it is plainly unbiblical) as expressed in youth culture but seek to use it and allow students to lead in their particular art-form style. For instance, if the students we reach seem to be more open to a certain style of music, we will strive to use that form in our worship context.
Our approach in the now missional model and the future missional model of youth ministry is to prepare youth for ministry now and to looking forward to church planting later. We will work now as a youth ministry to be the hands and feet of Jesus and raise up missionaries here and now for campus ministry, compassion, justice ministries, and for gospel witness. All the while we will seek to plant a church out of Creekside Community Church that would be either a viable self-sustaining young church or a church that still meets under the roof of the sending church. Creekside as it exists today is not young enough stylistically to be comfortable for the young church that we are talking about. A church for youth and by youth is the goal of the model. I am saddened that this has as much to do with style as with anything else. Our church is stylistically a modern seeker model in its Sunday services. This is not a criticism; it is a statement of fact. The church attracts in its style a person who is a young professional from mid 30’s to mid 50’s. While the leadership and style are all attracting and using those older people, the youth have nothing besides the youth ministry that is by them and for them. The worldwide Church will only grow when we are planning and growing backwards. What I mean by this is that a church has to be constantly thinking of the next generation. We have to be planning, training, and planting toward the generation that will come after us. The mantle of leadership has to be passed constantly to the next generation and these new communities of faith will have that same responsibility.
In his book called Ministry of the Missional Church, Craig Van Gelder talks about the new missional movement. Within the book he lists several aptitudes that it will need to have as a whole to embrace the Holy Spirit’s move in this new model. The first aptitude is to “learn to read context as they seek their contextuality.” The second aptitude is “to anticipate new insights into that Gospel.” Thirdly they must “anticipate reciprocity,” in other words, expect to be changed by the connection with the culture and expect exchange and dependence. The fourth aptitude is to understand that “they are contextual and therefore particular.” There will be no one- size-fits-all ministry. Such Christians must know and embrace their own particular context. The fifth aptitude will be that “ministry is always contextual and therefore always practical.” The sixth aptitude is that the new missional models will have an understanding that “theology is contextual and thus must have perspective.” The seventh is that “organization is contextual and therefore always provisional.” In other words, the organization must be adaptable. The whole theme of his aptitudes is adjustment, adaptation, and contextualizing oneself and the congregation to the ever-changing landscape of culture. As the new AT&T advertising campaign so appropriately shows what the new missional model should be doing, “Rethink Possible.” This was brought up in class discussion that could be a mantra of this new model. Contextualization is just that, rethinking possible. Asking the questions, “what is God doing here in this particular context in the San Francisco Bay Area and how can I rethink my part in His move to engage an ever-changing culture with the never changing message of the Gospel?” These aptitudes I would love to solicit God for in our students. That I would as a leader always be asking how can I use culture to display the marvelous Gospel and that my students would also in turn be asking those same questions.
Section 3: Theological Modality
Theologically my desire is to engage a scripturally authentic, gospel-focused, conservative, historical orthodoxy all the while maintaining a methodologically current model of missional ministry. I have been to Mars Hill Church in Seattle and love their church-planting initiative called Acts 29. This church is a theologically conservative Church model with very edgy, progressive liturgy. Their services look more like a club than a traditional church service, and the preaching is relevant and hard-hitting. The style and structure is accessible for a younger crowd. This is certainly from the personality of the pastor: he is not pretentious but is very hip and even looks the part. Mark Driscol is the founding, pastor and he is well read and incredibly germane to the culture he lives in and pastors in. This church has been at the forefront of the justice movements both in Seattle and to the ends of the earth. It has been at the forefront of church planting in North America and recently the mercy ministries to Haiti. In conjunction with many other churches, it has started a ministry to Haitian pastors and churches who are suffering in the aftermath of the devastating earthquake. As I understand justice ministry, it has to come from a gospel-focused theology.
I sometimes struggle with buzzwords in the modern-church movement that the Christian community creates to define and categorize what we should already be doing as authentic Christ followers. For example we have created the word “missional” to define and categorize what Christ has already commanded us to do and what his mission was on this earth. Christ showed us his mission as he read the Scriptures in the synagogue, “”THE SPIRIT OF THE LORD IS UPON ME, BECAUSE HE ANOINTED ME TO PREACH THE GOSPEL TO THE POOR. HE HAS SENT ME TO PROCLAIM RELEASE TO THE CAPTIVES, AND RECOVERY OF SIGHT TO THE BLIND, TO SET FREE THOSE WHO ARE OPPRESSED, TO PROCLAIM THE FAVORABLE YEAR OF THE LORD.”’ And He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant and sat down; and the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on Him. And He began to say to them, ‘Today this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing.’” This sounds somehow familiar as many people try to define and categorize missional models. They all incorporate what Christ came to do and what he continues to do in authentic faith communities to serve, preach good news, proclaim release to captives, recovery of sight to the blind, to set free the oppressed, and to proclaim God’s favor.
I maintain theological underpinnings that will be historically orthodox, including a strong Christology (Colossians 1:15-22), ecclesiology that says the Church is the God’s instrument of His movement in the world (Ephesians 3:10). I will also not deviate from a position of biblical inerrancy (in its original languages). This makes all clear because we are free to do anything then in creating new wineskins as Christ taught us unless it is plainly unbiblical. This gives me great freedom as I plan and think of new structures because my only restraint is God’s loving word to us. He has spelled out our boundaries and we need not wrestle with that. Our theology then can ask, “Does this reach people, and is plainly forbidden in Scripture.?” Another theological leaning are the great reformation theologies. Sola Gratia, Sola Fida, and Sola Scriptura. These have given much guidance to the Church over the centuries and can also guide us now.
We can also from that take church planting models from Scripture as Ed Stetzer does in His book Planting Missional Churches . He describes a biblical model that I would like to utilize. Team planting was the model that Paul used several times that He planted Churches (Acts 13:2-3 Paul and Barnabas and later Paul and Silas). Setzer shows the route of frequent Biblical values that Emerging Postmodern Churches have expressed. They are being unashamedly spiritual, promoting incarnational ministry, engaging in service, valuing experiential praise, preaching narrative expository messages, appreciating and participating in ancient patterns, visualizing worship, connecting with technology, living community, and leading by transparency and team. These are the Biblical values that the emerging models exhibit that I would like our current model to emulate and that I pray that a future youth Church plant would also model. Stetzer gives a great diagram in his book that is helpful in the theological context to define a perspective that I want to emphasize.
I really would like to join solid orthodox Ecclesiology, Christology, and Missiology into a progressive church that has a new set of tools to that are empowered by the Spirit. This matrix has been supremely helpful as I think about a theological model to join all these themes together into one spiritual formation. It should be a great catalyst to awakening in the youth culture in which we will work and eventually plant.
With these theological underpinnings creating freedom for a new missional model I understand what we can and what we are free to do in the world. We are free to accomplish Jesus mission, to make disciples of all nations. This will be a freeing and empowering model I believe because I don’t have to over think anything. I just have to as the Swedish reformed movement mantra asked, “Where is it written.” In conclusion the theology has to find the center of Biblical tension. Where can we agree and where can we move on. As a youth church planting movement we can agree to have unity in essentials liberty in non-essentials and in all things charity.
Section 4: Conclusion:
The Missional model as explained by Reggie McNeal in his book Missional Renaissance underscores a definition of what missional should mean. We should turn “from internal to external in terms of ministry focus, from program development to people development in terms of core activity and from church-based to kingdom-based in terms of leadership agenda.” This will eventually create in us a desire to scatter disciples instead of gathering congregants. Our model must reflect the heart of Christ’s incarnation as closely as possible. We will do as Christ did go and be instead of ask people to come and sit. We as a Church have come not far enough nor done enough for too long. Let us with fresh passion and commitment, get our hands dirty as Jesus did, and get were people are for the good of the kingdom.
3. Senter, Mark. 2001. “The Missional Approach to Youth Ministry”. In Four Views of Youth Ministry and the Church; Inclusive Congregational, Preparatory, Missional, Strategic. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House. p 79.
5. Assisi, Francis. 1988. Rule of 1221, Chapter XVII, Chicago, IL: Franciscan Herald Press.
6. Ashley, Jennifer. 2004. The Relevant Church a New Vision for Communities of Faith. Lake Mary, FL: Relevant Media Group. p 49-57
12. Cole, Neil. 2005. The Organic Church: Growing Faith Where Life Happens. San Francisco, CA: Josey-Bass. p 27-28.
13. Dryer, Martin. 2005 Die Volx Bibel. Neckarsteinach, Germany. Volxbibel-verlag.
15. Van Gelder, Craig. 2007. The Ministry of the Missional Church Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books. p 63-67.
16. International Council on Biblical Inerrancy. 1978. The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy. Chicago, IL.
17. Stetzer, Ed. 2006. Planting Missional Churches. Nashville TN: Broadman and Holman. p 135-136.
18. McNeal, Reggie. 2009. Missional Renaissance. San Francisco, CA. Jossey-Bass. Introduction p xvi
 (Matthew 28:20 [New American Standard Bible])
 (Mark 16:15 [New American Standard Bible])
 Senter, Mark. 2001. “The Missional Approach to Youth Ministry”. In Four Views of Youth Ministry and the Church; Inclusive Congregational, Preparatory, Missional, Strategic. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House. p 79.
 Ibid, p 80.
 (John 17:16-19 [New American Standard Bible]).
 (Matthew 28:20 [New American Standard Bible]).
 (Mark 12:29-31 [New American Standard Bible]).
 Assisi, Francis. 1988. Rule of 1221, Chapter XVII, Chicago, IL: Franciscan Herald Press.
 Senter, Mark. 2001. “The Missional Approach to Youth Ministry”. In Four Views of Youth Ministry and the Church; Inclusive Congregational, Preparatory, Missional, Strategic. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House. p 200-209
 Ashley, Jennifer. 2004. The Relevant Church a New Vision for Communities of Faith. Lake Mary, FL: Relevant Media Group. p 49-57
 (Matthew 18:20 [New American Standard Bible]).
 Cole, Neil. 2005. The Organic Church: Growing Faith Where Life Happens. San Francisco, CA: Josey-Bass. p 27-28.
 Dryer, Martin. 2005 Die Volx Bibel. Neckarsteinach, Germany. Volxbibel-verlag.
 Van Gelder, Craig. 2007. The Ministry of the Missional Church Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books. p 63-67.
 (Luke 4:18-21 [New American Standard Bible]).
 International Council on Biblical Inerrancy. 1978. The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy. Chicago, IL.
 Stetzer, Ed. 2006. Planting Missional Churches. Nashville TN: Broadman and Holman. p 135-136.
 Ibid, p 159
 McNeal, Reggie. 2009. Missional Renaissance. San Francisco, CA. Jossey-Bass. Introduction p xvi